Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event 한컴2010 다운로드. It can be caused by traumatic events, like a car accident, natural disaster, near-death experience, or other isolated acts of violence or abuse.
When the underlying trauma is severe and repetitive, some mental health professionals make a distinction between PTSD and complex PTSD (CPTSD).
Complex PTSD, also known as c-PTSD or CPTSD, is a condition where you experience some symptoms of PTSD along with additional symptoms, including :
- Difficulty controlling emotions
- Feeling hostile or distrustful towards the world
- Constant feelings of emptiness or hopelessness
- Feeling permanently damaged or worthless
- Feeling different to others
- Feeling like no one can understand what happened to you
- Avoiding friendships and relationships, or finding them difficult
- Frequent suicidal feelings
- Preoccupation with perpetrator (becoming obsessed with the abuser, dissecting the relationship with the abuser, and/or becoming preoccupied with revenge)
- Changes in self-perception
C-PTSD vs PTSD
While PTSD can develop in response to short-term exposure to a single traumatic event, C-PTSD develops only when you have experienced severe, repetitive trauma over a long period of time.
The World Health Organization made the decision to include C-PTSD as its own separate diagnosis in the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), published in June 2018.
What causes complex PTSD?
The types of traumatic events that can cause complex PTSD include:
- Childhood abuse, neglect or abandonment
- Ongoing domestic violence or abuse
- Repeatedly witnessing violence or abuse
- Being forced to become a sex worker
- Torture, kidnapping or slavery
- Being a prisoner of war.
You are more likely to develop complex PTSD if:
- You experienced trauma at an early age
- The trauma lasted for a long time
- Escape or rescue were unlikely or impossible
- You were harmed by someone close to you
- You’ve experienced multiple traumas
While anyone can develop CPTSD, some people may be more likely to develop it than others. Aside from having past traumatic experiences, additional risk factors include:
- Underlying mental illness, like anxiety or depression, or a family history
- Inherited personality traits
- How your brain regulates hormones and neurochemicals in response to stress
- Not having a strong support system or having a dangerous job
Treating complex PTSD
Treatment will depend on your personal circumstances. You may be offered therapies used to treat PTSD, like trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy or eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR).
Treatment for other problems like depression or alcohol addiction will also be addressed.
If you’ve had symptoms of post-traumatic stress for at least a month which interfere with your daily life, your doctor will likely start with a diagnosis of PTSD.
Depending on the traumatic event and whether you have additional symptoms, like ongoing relationship problems or trouble controlling emotions, it’s possible you will be diagnosed with CPTSD.