Typhoid fever is an infection caused by a bacteria called Salmonella Typhi Download the apartment floor plan. It spreads easily through food and water contaminated by sewerage. You can also get it from someone who has the infection. The infection is quite common in areas with overcrowding & poor sanitation.
How do you get typhoid fever?
Typhoid is spread through the faecal-oral route. This means that the bacteria are found in the faeces (stool) of an infected person. You can get the infection from water, food or other objects that have been contaminated with the infected stool. If you eat/drink contaminated items or touch contaminated surfaces you will get the infection.
What are the symptoms?
Unless it’s treated, you can get these symptoms over a few weeks:
- A stepwise fever: this means it gets higher over the day, and then drops by the morning again.
- Stomach pain
- Constipation or diarrhoea
- Feeling tired
- Loss of appetite
- Fever that stays high
- A swollen stomach
- Very bad constipation or diarrhoea
- Weight loss
The person becomes very ill and confused. If he/she isn’t treated, this is usually when the infection gets worse, and complications happen, such as bleeding into the intestines and infection of the blood.
If the person has survived, their fever will start returning to normal this week.
People who recover from Typhoid can still carry the bacteria in their system, without being sick. The bacteria still spreads through their faeces, infecting others.
In 1900, there was a cook who worked in the restaurants in New York city. She infected more than 50 people during her cooking career, and was later called ‘Typhoid Mary’.
How do you get treated?
Luckily we can very successfully treat typhoid with antibiotics. If the infection is treated in time, you can be cured before life-threatening complications happen.
So how can I keep myself from becoming infected?
There is a vaccine for Typhoid fever. It’s a good idea to take this if you travel to a country where Typhoid is common. Also follow basic hygiene rules:
- always boil your water
- avoid raw or unpeeled fruit and vegetables
- do not eat food from street vendors
- make sure you wash your hands well after using the bathroom
Author: Dr Lynelle Hoeks